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Infectious Disease
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Covid-19: How It Kills

(23:37 – narrated)  In depth review of pathophysiology of Covid-19 and SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in causing death in human hosts IND000


Group A Streptococcus related septic shock syndrome (STSS)

(10:35 – narrated) Pathophysiology of septic shock arising from invasive streptococcus pyogenes infection. IND004


Shock – cardiogenic, septic, hypovolemic

(3:30) A comparison of cardiogenic shock, septic shock and hypovolemic shock, and response to treatment modalities. (with sound) SHK002



(10:50 – narrated)  Review of infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis, with primary lung infection followed by latent state. Concept of reactivation with pulmonary infiltration and cavitation IND005


Spinal Infection

(1:32)  Infection in the spine, starting in an intervertebral disc (discitis) and spreading into vertebral bodies and the spinal canal and epidural space, with formation of phlegmon (abscess) MRI example integrated ORT021


Fulminant Bacterial Meningitis

(3:21) 3D medical animation of acute bacterial meningitis in a child. Invasion of nasal epithelium by meningococcal bacteria, facilitated by respiratory virus. Entry of meningococcus into the bloodstream and hence to the brain, with immune response, release of cytokines, and subsequent cerebral edema.NEU072


Endocarditis and Stroke

(1:26 – narrated)  Review of sepsis related endocarditis, with subsequent growth of cardiac valve leaflet vegetations, embolization and stroke CVS150



(4:16) Chorioamnionitis due to ascending infection with insufficient (incompetent) cervix. (actual tissue slides integrated) OBS131

Septicemia with ARDS

(2:26)  Septicemia arising from a localized post operative wound infection with Psoas abscesses and ARDS (adult respiratory distress syndrome) IND003


Septic Shock – Perforated Viscus (1:34)

Septic shock arising from perforation of the intestine. GST101


Acute peritonitis 

(2:55 – narrated) Acute peritonitis occurring as a result of gastric (stomach) perforation. GST102


Spinal Vasculitis

(1:18)  Spinal infection results in inflammation of spinal arteries (vasculitis) with subsequent loss of blood flow to, and necrosis (death) of the spinal cord ORT022


Meningitis and Antibiotics

(1:14) effect of antibiotic therapy in established fulminant bacterial meningitis. Fragmentation of bacteria by antibiotics triggers increased immune response and cytokine release, resulting in worsening of adverse effects on the brain, including cerebral edema. NEU073


Fungal Meningitis

(4:58-narrated) Fungal meningitis arising as a result of contaminated epidural steroid injection, many cases of which occurred in the USA in 2012. Subsequent  vasculitis with thrombus and hemorrhagic related stroke (CVA – cerebrovascular accident) IND002


Candidiasis and Encephalitis

(2:26) Insertion of PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter) line with growth of candida albicans and subsequent spread to the brain causing candidal encephalitis IND001


Chorioamnionitis and Funisitis

(4:22) Chorioamnionitis due to ascending infection, involvement of extra-placental membranes and umbilical vessels. (funisitis/ tissue slides) OBS132


Dental Sepsis 

(4:01) Sepsis occurring as a result of a dental procedure, with subsequent erosion of the cecum in the area of a previously placed aortobifemoral graft (DEN002)